The Uighurs in China remain under threat of assimilation, repression and discrimination, slowly becoming marginalised in their indigenous home. Conflict has been ongoing since 1991, with sporadically occurring violence and ethnic riots. On April 24, 2013, 21 people were killed in Kashgar; July 2009 saw riots in Urumqi, with 197 dead and 1700 injured; and executions followed an incident in Ghulja in 1997. The Uighurs are faced with growing political and economic inequalities and denial of services, particularly in education and culture. The risk of continuing instability remains high, with efforts towards regional development fuelling increased in-migration, and repression tactics by the Chinese government indicate the occurrence of Crimes against Humanity. Recommendations to concerned parties are to increase lobbying efforts, and to make human rights issues a central policy focus, as well as to encourage awareness through research.